今天要给大家介绍的一种短语类型叫动词词组(Phrasal Verbs)。

1.动词词组(Phrasal Verbs)概念——Verb+Adverb

动词词组由一个动词和一个“小词”组成。值得注意的是:这个“小词”是副词而非介词, 同时,动词词组的含义也与动词本身的意义不尽相同。

Examples:

MAKE OUT (=“understand”理解), TAKE OFF (=“leave the ground by flying”起飞), PICK UP (=“remove from the ground”捡起).TURN ON (=“put into functioning mode”打开) :”on” 在这里是副词,不同于在”DEPEND ON”这个介词词组中的”on”作为介词存在。

2.动词词组与介词词组(Preposition Verbs)的区别

A.介词词组后面必定有名词充当宾语,而动词词组后面则可以不直接跟宾语。

Examples:

作为动词词组,Permission is required for the plane to take off中,take off后可不加宾语;而在Night workers must switch on the lights.中,宾语”the lights”也可提前,句子变为:Night workers must switch the lights on.

B.介词词组常被修饰动词的副词分割开,而分割动词词组的副词修饰的则是小词。

Examples:

“Plants DEPEND continually ON water”中,副词”continually”修饰的是介词词组中的动词”depend”,而”SWITCH the lights fully ON”中,副词”fully”修饰的是动词词组中的小词”on”。

3.及物(Transitive)与不及物(Intransitive)动词

它们两者的判断标准是:及物动词后面带有宾语(Transitive + Object),而不及物动词后面没有宾语。下面列出了一些常见的及物与不及物动词词组,供大家参考。需要注意的是:同一词组,在表达不同含义时及物与不及物性质也会有所不同(如:take off)。

Transitive:

BREAK UP (=separate into smaller pieces打破), BRING BACK (=return带回), BRING IN(=introduce介绍), CLOSE/SHUT DOWN (=bring to a permanent end关闭), CUT OFF (=block切断), HAND OUT (=distribute directly to people分发), FILL IN (=complete with requested information填写表格), GIVE BACK (=return归还), GIVE UP (=yield放弃), GO OVER (=review回顾), LOOK OVER (=examine检查), MAKE OUT (=understand; discern理解), MAKE UP (=compose a falsehood弥补), PICK UP (=remove from the ground; receive捡起), SWITCH ON/OFF (=give power to打开/关闭电源), TAKE AWAY (=carry to another place拿走), TAKE OFF (= mimic; remove脱下;分离), TAKE ON a challenge (=accept迎接), TAKE OVER (=acquire responsibility for接管), TURN DOWN (=refuse拒绝), WRITE DOWN (= put on record记下)……

Intransitive:

BREAK OUT (=escape;appear as an epidemic爆发), BREAK UP (=end a relationship or formal activity分手), CLOSE/SHUT DOWN (=come to a permanent end关闭), COME BACK (=return返回), FADE AWAY (=gradually disappear逐渐消失), FALL OFF (diminish减弱), FALL OVER (=trip and cease to stand摔倒), GET AWAY (= escape逃跑), GIVE UP (=quit放弃), GO AWAY (=depart离开), GO OUT (=exit出去), GROW UP (= become an adult长大成人), KEEP ON (=continue保持), LOOK AWAY (=change the focus of the eyes转移视线), MAKE UP (=stop quarrelling和好), MISS OUT (=fail to get something错过), PICK UP (=improve学会), RISE UP (=rebel反抗), TAKE OFF (=fly into the air起飞), TURN OVER (=change the manner of lying down翻转)

以上就是乐小知本期介绍的关于动词词组的主要内容,聪明的你学会了吗?

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